Toronto

Jane Finch Toronto
Toronto is the largest city in Canada with a population of 2.79 million people (5.5 million in the Greater Toronto Area), and the provincial capital of Ontario. It is located in Southern Ontario on the north shore of Lake Ontario. Toronto’s urban community only dates to 1793 when British colonial officials founded the ‘Town of York’ on what was then the Upper Canadian frontier. The backwoods village was incorporated as a city and renamed the ‘City of Toronto’ in 1834. Since then Toronto has expanded its borders several times through amalgamation with surrounding municipalities, most recently in 1998.

Through its subsequent evolution and expansion Toronto has emerged as the most immigration-receiving city in Canada, and one of the most diverse cities in the world. In 2006, half of Toronto’s population (1,237,720) was born outside of Canada. There are 140 languages and dialects spoken in Toronto, and over 30% of Toronto residents speak a language other than English or French at home.

Toronto was Canada’s major manufacturing city, supported by protectionist tariffs on imported manufactured products. Over the years its economy has shifted from manufacturing to a more service-based economy. While the city’s economy experienced major social and economic restructuring, the manufacturing jobs have moved to the suburban locations and other regions.

Jane and Finch is a neighbourhood located in the northwest end of Toronto, originally developed as a model suburb in the 1960s in response to rapid urban growth. The Jane and Finch neighbourhood is part of the Black Creek community.

The community experienced a huge wave of immigration after WWII, with newcomers from the Caribbean, East Asia, South Asia, Africa, and South America. The highly diverse neighbourhood has one of the highest proportions of youth, sole-supported families, refugees and immigrants, people without a high-school diploma, low-income earners, and public housing tenants of any community in Toronto. As well, there is a substantial and equally diverse population living in middle class detached and semi-detached houses, townhouses, and high-rise tower blocks.

The community was originally planned to accommodate a socially diverse population and included a substantial amount of public housing. However, insufficient thought was given to the social infrastructure needed to sustain community life.

District Images

Key Statistics

CANADA Canada Toronto Jane-Finch
Area (km2) [1] 8 965 121 632 21
Total population [2] 31 612 897 2 503 000 80 150
Not born in Canada 69.0% 50.0% 60.0%
Average household income [6] ** C$ 35 501 C$ 80 300 C$ 53 900
Unemployment Rate [7] 6.6% 6.7% 9.2%
Highest level of education [3] Canada Toronto Jane-Finch
Primary education; lower secondary education [4] 26.0% 10%* 37.3%**
Middle vocational education; upper secondary education [5] 44.0% 33%* 30%**
Higher vocational education; tertiary education 30.0% 57%* 3.9%**
Persons 25 or over without a school certificate or diploma or degree [5] 19.0% 18.0% 35.0%
Age Groups

Toronto 5-19

Toronto 20-64

Toronto 65+


NOTES

Data in this table mainly refers to statistics based on 2006 census (unless indicated otherwise) because of the unreliability of the National Household Survey of 2011 that replaced long-term census.
           
* These figures refer to the entire Ontario region, not specifically to Toronto           
** These figures refer to the Black Creek area in general, not specifically the Jane-Finch neighbourhood.
** Before tax, persons 15 and over

Sources:           
1. (2006) Statistics Canada, Profile Series, Basic Cross-Tabulations, Topic-Based Tabulations Census 1971 to 2006.
2. (2006) Statistics Canada, Custom Tabulations: E0985, E0982, E01171           
3. (2006) Statistics Canada, Profile Series, Basic Cross-Tabulations, Topic-Based Tabulations Census 1971 to 2006.
4. (2006) Jane-Finch Priority Area Profile, City of Toronto (August 2008)           
5. (2010) Trends in educational attainment among the 25- to 64-year-old population, by highest level of education attained, Canada, provinces and territories, 1997 to 2010.
6. (2011) City of Toronto, Wellbeing Toronto (www.toronto.ca)           
7. (2011) Working Rough, Living Poor: Employment and Income Insecurities faced by Racialized Groups and their Impacts on Health.
8. (2006) Statistics Canada, Profile Series, Basic Cross-Tabulations, Topic-Based Tabulations Census 1971 to 2006.
9. (2005) Statistics Canada, Custom Tabulations: E0985, E0982, E01171           
10. (2006) Statistics Canada, Profile Series, Basic Cross-Tabulations, Topic-Based Tabulations Census 1971 to 2006.
11. (2006) Jane-Finch Priority Area Profile, City of Toronto (August 2008)

Toronto Reports

Urban Policies on Diversity

Critical analysis of existing urban policy programmes and discourses in the case study area. Includes overview of political systems and governance structures, key shifts in national discourses, and approaches to policy over migration, citizenship, and diversity.

Governance Arrangements and Initiatives

Analysis of local governance arrangements and initiatives in the case study area that target social cohesion, social mobility and economic performance.

Work Package 5 Initiatives

Fieldwork Inhabitants

Analysis of how urban diversity and policies and arrangements affect different population groups living in cities in terms of social cohesion and social mobility.

Toronto Fieldwork Entrepreneurs

Analysis of how urban diversity and policies and arrangements with respect to urban diversity affect different population groups living in cities in terms of economic performance and to clarify who (which social groups) profit and how they profit.

 

Toronto News

Diversity and social cohesion

Diversity and social cohesion: the case of Jane-Finch, a highly diverse lower-income Toronto neighbourhood is the title of Donya Ahmadi’s article published in the Urban Research & Practice journal. The abstract is below and the
Toronto City Book

Toronto

Unlike many European cities, Toronto takes a positive approach to diversity, as re ected in its o cial slogan: Diversity our Strength. Nonetheless, Toronto’s approach has also been criticized for utilizing diversity as a marketable