Rotterdam, the focus of this book, is a highly diverse city with a current population of about 620,000 inhabitants. The former industrial city is one of Europe’s most important ports (the largest cargo port in Europe and the 10th largest in the world). Rotterdam has a relatively high proportion of low-skilled workers. The city has achieved major successes in diversifying its economy and attracting national and international businesses; it has a broad workforce. Yet, it still has relatively high levels of unemployment, income segregation and more poor households when compared to other large Dutch cities. Due to its history as a port city, Rotterdam has attracted migrants from all over the world. Migrants have come to work on the docks or in the context of family formation and reunion. In 2015, almost half of the city’s inhabitants (49%) were born, or had at least one parent born, abroad. On average minority ethnic groups have children at a younger age than Dutch citizens, giving Rotterdam a relatively young population compared to other cities in the Netherlands.