Among DIVERCITIES’ case studies, Leipzig represents a special case, because it has undergone radical changes after 1990, like other post-socialist cities (Budapest, Warsaw, Tallinn), but these are not institutionally embedded in the reunification with western Germany. As a former state-socialist city, Leipzig saw a break in its development in 1990, losing much of its industrial base. The city had to adapt to western German political and institutional settings, to re-build its administration, and to build new structures and modes of local governance. At the same time, the socio-demographic makeup of Leipzig’s population changed dramatically; on the one hand, specifically post-socialist, East German characteristics emerged; on the other hand, a convergence towards general European trends also developed. The topic of migration and immigration has been crucial for the development of Leipzig in many respects: whilst the city experienced massive out-migration during the 1990s (it lost about 20% of its population), it has seen reurbanisation and new in-migration since 2000; since 2010, the dynamics of population gain has massively increased to 2% and above every year. Within recent years, Leipzig also saw an internationalisation of in-migration.