In this book, we introduce findings from the case study area, Beyoglu, which is one of the districts with a diversified population in Istanbul. It has a long diversity legacy since it has hosted various civilisations with different ethnicities, cultures, languages and religion in different periods. roughout the 19th century, Beyoglu was home to European populations (French, Germans, Italians, British, etc.) and non-Muslim Ottoman citizens (Greeks, Armenians and Jews), but it had lost many of its former residents at the beginning of the Republican period, starting in the 1920s. Following the population exchange between the Balkan countries and Turkey and the outward migration of people of Greek descent after the events of 6-7 September 1955 the area attracted many poor immigrant families from less-developed regions of Turkey in the 1960s, as well as other disadvantaged groups. Furthermore, the departure of those of Greek descent led other minorities to leave the district, after which, it became home to many immigrants with different ethnic and cultural backgrounds, as well as immigrants from neighbouring countries and Western Europe. At present, Beyoglu has a very mixed demographic structure, including poor communities, immigrants from different regions of Turkey, besides creative-professional middle and high-income classes, artists and people with diverse gender identities and sexual orientation. Romani people, Kurdish people, Syrian refugees, international immigrants and ethnic minorities, including Jews, Armenians and Greeks are some of the inhabitants of this district. According to recent figures (2013), 8.3% of the population are foreigners (TSI, 2013). The Beyoglu District is also diverse in terms of the socio-economic status of its residents. While the south-eastern parts of the district accommodate upscale residential areas with regards to income and education levels of its inhabitants, the neighbourhoods in the west and the north-west constitute residential areas where the socio-economic conditions of residents are remarkably low, accompanied by poverty and physical and socio-economic deprivation (Arıkan-Akdağ, 2012). Recently, Beyoglu has been undergoing a gradual change as a result of the urban renewal projects taking place in the more deprived areas and gentrification in certain neighbourhoods (Galata, Cihangir, Tarlabaşı, etc.) (Enlil, 2011; Uzun, 2013).